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360Science™: Designing a Handwarmer

By: The Flinn Scientific Staff

360Science™ blends the best of student-engaging digital content with easily adaptable hands-on labs to offer your students a uniquely comprehensive learning experience.

In this lab experience, students put their chemistry skills to commercial use. From instant cold packs to flameless ration heaters and handwarmers, the energy changes accompanying physical and chemical transformations have many consumer applications. The backbone of these applications is calorimetry—measuring heat transfer. Investigate the energy changes accompanying the formation of solutions for common laboratory salts, and then apply the results to design a hand warmer that is reliable, safe and inexpensive. Editable, differentiated instructions range from a time-sensitive prescriptive lab to full open inquiry, and robust online videos and content—including a virtual reality (VR) simulation—help students prepare for and better understand the labs they’re conducting.

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360Science™: Designing a Handwarmer
Concepts:
 Enthalpy change, calorimetry, heat of solution, specific heat, exothermic vs. endothermic, system and surroundings
Outcomes: Students should discover that different ionic salts can cause different temperature changes when dissolved in water. In addition to recording temperature changes, students must analyze other properties of the salts that would make the salts a good or poor handwarmer. Students study calorimetry, molar heat of solution and more in this engaging activity.
Associated Phenomena: Hot and Cold Processes 

Our 1-year option provides access to all digital content for one year plus lab supplies for a single class of 30 students. Our 3-year option extends access to digital content to three years, with a 30% discount on refill supply kits years 2 and 3.

What is Flinn 360Science™?
We’re introducing a whole new way to teach experiential science! We’ve taken a hard look at science study from all perspectives and, thanks to the feedback of thousands of teachers nationwide, we’ve created a way to make it easier to provide personalized instruction while delivering the kind of lab experiences your students truly need.

Our new and comprehensive learning solutions are designed to bring science to life by giving you all the tools you need to incorporate more (and effective) hands-on learning in your classroom or lab. 360Science allows you to provide your students with the support they need to make real-world connections to key scientific principles and help make those abstract concepts concrete.

Every 360Science lab solves the most common challenges educators face in bringing more hands-on science to their students—from not having enough time to matching the right level of challenge for students’ abilities to providing appropriate background content, safety techniques, assessments and more.

Enable student-driven, blended learning through a unique combination of leveled lab instructions supporting prescriptive, guided- and open-inquiry lab exercises (see PDF resource for specific details) with robust digital content, such as videos and carefully curated Open Educational Resources (OER)—along with virtual reality and simulation exercises. From editable, digital instructions to assessments and alignment with Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), we have everything you need to improve mastery, remove the intimidation factor and foster your students’ natural curiosity.


Correlation to Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

Science & Engineering Practices

Planning and carrying out investigations

Disciplinary Core Ideas

HS-PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
HS-PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes

Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

Performance Expectations

HS-PS3-4: Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics).