Cancer and the Loss of Cell Cycle Control
Inquiry Lab Kit AP® Biology
Materials Included In Kit
Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma karyotype, sheet 6
Burkitt ’s lymphoma karyotype, sheet 7
Chronic myelogenous leukemia karyotype, sheet 2
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans karyotype, sheet 10
Ewing’s sarcoma karyotype, sheet 11
Follicular lymphoma karyotype, sheet 8
HeLa karyotype, sheet 5
Mantle cell lymphoma karyotype, sheet 4
Normal female karyotype, sheet 1
Normal male karyotype, sheet 3
Synovial sarcoma karyotype, sheet 9
Additional Materials Required
(for each lab group)
The materials used in this activity are considered nonhazardous. Please follow all normal classroom safety guidelines.
- Enough materials are provided in this kit for 8 groups of students. The Baseline Activity can reasonably be completed in one 50-minute class period. The research may be completed outside of class. The poster session or other presentation may be completed in a second class period.
- With enough introduction and experience with karyotypes this activity may be completed as homework.
- Use prepared microscope slides of chromosome spreads to show the size. Flinn Scientific carries several types.
- Have students prepare their own chromosome spreads using the large chromosomes of Drosophila virilis. Please contact Flinn Scientific and request the digital publication.
Opportunities for Inquiry
Research aneuploidy and translocation in breast cancer, bladder cancer, prostate cancer or another cancer. Locate one or more karyotypes online for these cancers. Prepare a miniposter or other presentation on the cancer of choice.
Concepts and Curriculum Framework for AP® Biology
Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
2A3: Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow, reproduce, and maintain organization.
2B1: Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to their structure.
2B2: Growth and dynamic homeostasis are maintained by the constant movement of molecules across membranes.
2D1: All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy.
Big Idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes.
3A1: DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information.
3A2: In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis or meiosis plus fertilization.
3A3: The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides an understanding of the pattern of passage (transmission) of genes from parent to offspring.
3C2: Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation.
Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.
4A4: Organisms exhibit complex properties due to interactions between their constituent parts.
4A6: Interactions among living systems and with their environment result in the movement of matter and energy.
- The student can make predictions about natural phenomena occurring during the cell cycle (3A2 & SP 6.4).
- The student can describe the events that occur in the cell cycle (3A2 & SP 1.2).
- The student is able to construct an explanation, using visual representations or narratives, as to how DNA in chromosomes is transmitted to the next generation via mitosis, or meiosis followed by fertilization (3A2 & SP 6.2).
- The student is able to represent the connection between meiosis and increased genetic diversity necessary for evolution (3A2 & SP 7.1).
- The student is able to evaluate evidence provided by data sets to support the claim that heritable information is passed from one generation to another generation through mitosis, or meiosis followed by fertilization (3A2 & SP 5.3).
- The student is able to construct a representation that connects the process of meiosis to the passage of traits from parent to offspring (3A3 & SP 1.1, SP 7.2).
- The student is able to construct an explanation of the multiple processes that increase variation within a population (3C2 & SP 6.2).
1.1 The student can create representations and models of natural or man-made phenomena and systems in the domain.
1.2 The student can describe representations and models of natural or man-made phenomena and systems in the domain.
5.3 The student can evaluate the evidence provided by data sets in relation to a particular scientific question.
6.2 The student can construct explanations of phenomena based on evidence produced through scientific practices.
6.4 The student can make claims and predictions about natural phenomena based on scientific theories and models.
7.1 The student can connect phenomena and models across spatial and temporal scales.
7.2 The student can connect concepts in and across domains to generalize or extrapolate in and/or across enduring understandings and/or big ideas.
Correlation to Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)†
Science & Engineering Practices
Developing and using models
Asking questions and defining problems
Analyzing and interpreting data
Constructing explanations and designing solutions
Obtaining, evaluation, and communicating information
Disciplinary Core Ideas
HS-LS1.A: Structure and Function
HS-LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms
HS-LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
HS-LS3.B: Variation of Traits
Cause and effect
Systems and system models
Structure and function
Stability and change
HS-LS1-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins, which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells.
HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
HS-LS1-4. Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms.
HS-LS3-2. Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors.
Answers to Questions
- Karyotype Sheet 1 is a normal female. There are 46 chromosomes present.
- Karyotype Sheet 2 is a chronic myeloid leukemia karyotype. CML is typically a (9;22) translocation with one extra-long chromosome 9 and one very short chromosome 22, the Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22)(q34;q11.2). The remainder of the karyotype is that of a normal female. There are 46 chromosomes present.
- Karyotype Sheet 3 is a normal male. There are 46 chromosomes present.
- Karyotype Sheet 4 is a mantle cell lymphoma karyotype. MCL is typically an (11;14) translocation with the bottom of chromosome 11 switching with the bottom of chromosome 14 t(11;14)(q13;q32). The remainder of the karyotype is that of a normal male. There are 46 chromosomes present.
- Karyotype Sheet 5 is a HeLa karyotype. HeLa is seen as aneuploid female karyotype with chromosomes 3 and Y absent, chromosome 22 only has one copy present, chromosomes 4, 8, 12, 19 and X have 2 copies present, chromosomes 1, 2, 7, 11, 13, 14, 18, 20 and 21 have three copies present, chromosomes 5, 9, 10, 15, 16 and 17 have four copies present, and chromosome 6 has five copies present for a total of 67 chromosomes. The HeLa cell line has changed over the last 60+ years. There are so many different variations in chromosome number that the cell line chromosome number is noted as a subscript. For example, the karyotype used for this activity is HeLa67. HeLa is a cell infected by HPV-18.
- Karyotype Sheet 6 is an anaplastic large-cell lymphoma karyotype. ALCL is a (2;5) translocation with the top bands of 2 attaching to the bottom of 5 t(2;5)(p23;q35). The remainder of the karyotype is that of a normal male. There are 46 chromosomes present.
- Karyotype Sheet 7 is a Burkitt’s lymphoma karyotype. Burkitt’s lymphoma can be an (8;14) translocation with the bottom bands of 8 attaching to the bottom of 14 t(8;14)(q24;q32). The remainder of the karyotype is that of a normal female. There are 46 chromosomes present.
- Karyotype Sheet 8 is a follicular lymphoma karyotype. Follicular lymphoma can be a (14;18) translocation with the bottom bands of 18 attaching to the bottom of 14 t(14;18)(q32;q21). The remainder of the karyotype is that of a normal female. There are 46 chromosomes present.
- Karyotype Sheet 9 is a synovial sarcoma karyotype. Synovial sarcoma is a reciprocal (X;18) translocation with the bottom of 18 and the top of the X chromosome switching places t(x;18)(p11.2;q11.2). The remainder of the karyotype is that of a normal female. There are 46 chromosomes present.
- Karyotype Sheet 10 is a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans karyotype. DFSP is a rare tumor. It is a (17;22) translocation in which the two chromosomes also fuse into a circle t(17;22)(q22;q13). The remainder of the karyotype is that of a normal male. There are 45 chromosomes present.
- Karyotype Sheet 11 is a Ewing’s sarcoma karyotype. Ewing’s sarcoma in 90 percent of cases is a (11;22) translocation with the bottom of 22 attaching to the bottom of 11 t(11;22)(q24;q12). The remainder of the karyotype is that of a normal male. There are 46 chromosomes present.
AP Biology Investigative Labs: An Inquiry-Based Approach. College Entrance Examination Board: New York, 2012.
Biology: Lab Manual; College Entrance Examination Board: New York, 2001.
HPV cancer. Accessed Feb. 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/cancer.html
Karyotype image research. Accessed Feb. 2012. www.medscape.com and elsevierimages.com
Lucey, B. P., Nelson-Rees, W. A., and Hutchins, G. M. “Henrietta Lacks, HeLa Cells, and Cell Culture Contamination”; Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine; College of American Pathologists, Sept. 2009, Vol 133, pp 1463–1467.
Nambiar, M., Kari, V., Raghaven, S. “Chromosomeal Translocations in Cancer”; Reviews on Cancer, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Dec. 2008, Vol 1786, Issue 2, pp 139–152.