In the General, Organic and Biological Chemistry (GOB) Lab Kit: Properties of Hydrocarbons, investigate the properties of a variety of hydrocarbons, including cyclohexane, cyclohexene, toluene, styrene, and acetylene.
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General, Organic and Biological Chemistry Hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen. This apparent simplicity in the structure of hydrocarbons is belied by the great diversity in the size or length of hydrocarbon molecules, the extent of branching in carbon&carbon chains, the variety of possible ring sizes, and the presence of alkene, alkyne, and aromatic functional groups. The purpose of this activity is to investigate the properties of a variety of hydrocarbons, including cyclohexane, cyclohexene, toluene, styrene, and acetylene. Students first perform solubility and density tests on the different compounds, followed by reactivity tests with bromine water and permanganate solution. Student use the results of these tests to characterize the properties of the various hydrocarbons.
Complete for 24 students working in pairs.
Correlation to Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)
Science & Engineering Practices
Analyzing and interpreting data
Obtaining, evaluation, and communicating information
Planning and carrying out investigations
Developing and using models
Using mathematics and computational thinking
Constructing explanations and designing solutions
Disciplinary Core Ideas
HS-PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter
HS-PS2.B: Types of Interactions
HS-ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems
Cause and effect
Stability and change
Energy and matter
Structure and function
HS-PS1-2. Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.
HS-PS1-6. Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.
HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.
HS-PS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.
HS-PS2-6. Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.
HS-PS1-4. Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.
HS-PS1-5. Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.