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In the General, Organic and Biological Chemistry (GOB) Lab Kit: Alcohols and Their Oxidation Products, explore the physical and chemical properties of alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, and ketones.

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General, Organic and Biological Chemistry Many important biological molecules incorporate an alcohol functional group. Oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds is also an essential reaction in metabolism and other biochemical processes. The physical and chemical properties of alcohols and their oxidation products can be used to help identify the structures of natural products. In this two part organic biochemistry lab, student will first explore the physical and chemical properties of alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, and ketones. Tests are performed to establish the qualitative differences among these functional groups, such as solubility in water, reaction with an oxidizer, and color changes when mixed with Schiff’s reagent, to name a few. The results of these tests are then used in a qualitative analysis scheme to identify the functional groups and structures of three natural products found in essential plant oils. Includes reproducible student handouts, detailed background information, complete Teacher Notes with sample data, and all necessary chemicals. Complete for 24 students working in pairs. Perform this lab in a fume hood.

Correlation to Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

Science & Engineering Practices

Developing and using models
Obtaining, evaluation, and communicating information
Analyzing and interpreting data
Constructing explanations and designing solutions

Disciplinary Core Ideas

HS-PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter
HS-PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and effect
Energy and matter
Stability and change
Structure and function

Performance Expectations

HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.
HS-PS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.
HS-PS2-6. Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.
HS-PS1-2. Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.
HS-PS1-5. Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.
HS-PS1-4. Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.