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In the General, Organic and Biological Chemistry (GOB) Lab Kit: Titration of Fruit Juices, compare the citric acid content in a variety of fruit juices.The balance of sugar-to-acid content is responsible for the appealing taste of juices.

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General, Organic and Biological Chemistry The refreshing taste of fresh fruit juices is due to a complex blend of flavors and fragrances. Fruit juices get a sweet taste from sugars, especially fructose and glucose, and a sour or tart taste from acids, such as citric acid and tartaric acid. The balance of sugar-to-acid content is one of the main factors responsible for the appealing taste of fruit juices—too much sugar, and the juice will taste bland, but too much acid, and the juice will taste sour. The “total acidity” of fruit juices is determined by titration with sodium hydroxide. In this experiment, students compare the citric acid content in a variety of fruit juices. The concentration of citric acid in each juice will be determined by a titration using phenolphthalein to find the equivalence point or endpoint in the titration. Complete for 24 students working in pairs.

Correlation to Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

Science & Engineering Practices

Asking questions and defining problems
Planning and carrying out investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Engaging in argument from evidence
Obtaining, evaluation, and communicating information

Disciplinary Core Ideas

MS-PS1.B: Chemical Reactions
HS-PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns
Cause and effect
Scale, proportion, and quantity

Performance Expectations

MS-PS1-1. Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.
MS-PS1-2. Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.
HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.
HS-PS1-2. Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.