Your Safer Source for Science
All-In-One Science Solution
Your Safer Source for Science
Address P.O. Box 219 Batavia, IL 60510
Phone 800-452-1261
Fax 866-452-1436
Email [email protected]
Pearson Products Bunch view pearson-flinn logo

Investigation 1: Combustion—Matter, Energy, and Change

product

Measure Energy in Combustion Reactions

Performance Assessment

In this lab experience, students examine real data for several fuels and measure the energy densities of two of them to confirm that differences in composition and structure cause differences in properties. Students should come to understand that different fuel sources have different chemical compositions and therefore different chemical structures. When a fuel burns the bonds that hold its constituent atoms together break on the reactant side of a chemical equation and then reform on the product side of a chemical equation. This process results in the release or absorption of energy. We can calculate the amount of energy associated with a chemical reaction by indirectly monitoring its temperature (i.e., the temperature of water the reaction is used to heat). Students should recognize that despite evidence to the contrary (e.g., the charring of wood splints), mass is not destroyed in a chemical reaction, only transformed.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Ethanol, 95%, 500 mL
Aluminum foil, roll
Wood splints, package of 100
Non-Consumable:
Alcohol burner, 10
Additional Materials Required
Butane Safety Lighter, 10
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 50 mL, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 410 x 0.01-g, 10
Ring Support, with Rod Clamp, 4", 10
Stirring Rods, Glass, 10
Support Stand, 6" x 9", 10
Flinn Digital Thermometer, 10
Tongs, 10

product

Energy Densities of Organic Fuels

In this lab experience, students determine how much energy is released when an object burns to measure the heat flow from the object to its surroundings, introducing the concept of calorimetry and investigating the caloric content of organic fuels. Students should come to understand that different fuel sources have different chemical compositions and therefore different chemical structures. When a fuel burns, the bonds that hold its constituent atoms together break on the reactant side of a chemical equation and then reform on the product side of a chemical equation. This process results in the release or absorption of energy. We can calculate the amount of energy associated with a chemical reaction by indirectly monitoring its temperature (i.e., the temperature of water the reaction is used to heat). Students should recognize that despite evidence to the contrary (e.g., the burning of charcoal or ethanol), mass is not destroyed in a chemical reaction, only transformed.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Aluminum foil, roll
Charcoal, 90 g
Wood splints, package of 100
Additional Materials Required
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 410 x 0.01-g, 10
Butane Safety Lighter, 10
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 50 mL, 10
Ring Support, with Rod Clamp, 4", 10
Stirring Rods, Glass, 10
Support Stand, 6" x 9", 10
Flinn Digital Thermometer, 10

product

Measure Energy Flow in Chemical Reactions

In this lab experience, students experience on how energy flows in chemical reactions by exploring endothermic and exothermic reations. Students observe reacting CaO with H2O will result in a transfer of energy from a system (the reaction) to the surroundings (the area in direct proximity to the reaction) that results in a measurable increase in temperature. Reacting NH4SCN and Ba(OH)2•8H2O will result in a transfer of energy from the surroundings to the system that results in a measurable decrease in temperature.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Ammonium thiocyanate, 100 g
Barium hydroxide, 150 g
Calcium oxide, 100 g
Zipper-lock bags, 15
Additional Materials Required
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 50 mL, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 410 x 0.01-g, 10
Flinn Digital Thermometer, 10

product

Energy Efficient Cookware

Engineering Design Challenge
In this lab experience, students use microscale calorimeters to evaluate the heat flow of metals and discover that metals conduct thermal energy much more easily than nonmetals and nonmetals make good insulators because they do not conduct thermal energy well. Students determine that different metals conduct heat at different rates. Students should determine that copper is the metal best suited for use in cookware owing to its ability to distribute heat from a source quickly.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Paraffin wax, 20 g
Non-Consumable:
Aluminum strip, 6" × ½", 10
Copper strip, 6" × ½", 10
Zinc strip, 5" × ½", 10
Additional Materials Required
DLAB Classic Magnetic Stirrer/Hot Plate, 10
Gloves, Terrycloth, General Purpose, 10
Support Stand, 6" x 9", 10
Student Timer, 12-pack, 1

product

Matter Transformation in Combustion

In this lab experience, students engage in an investigation to prove that matter cannot be created or destroyed via chemical reactions, only converted from one form to another despite visual evidence that they might interpret as contrarian to the Law of Conservation of Mass. Students observe that the precombustion mass of sugar samples are equal to, or negligibly different than, the post-combustion masses of the sugar samples. Students infer from this observation that mass is conserved throughout chemical reactions and that matter is not created or destroyed, but transformed from one form to another.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Dextrose, C6H12O6, 100 g
Sucrose, C12H22O11, 100 g
Balloons, 12”, package of 20
Non-Consumable:
Test tubes, borosilicate glass, 20
Additional Materials Required
Bunsen Burner, Adjustable, Natural Gas, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 410 x 0.01-g, 10
Flint Lighter, 10
Single Buret Clamp, Plastic-Coated Jaw, 10
Support Stand, 6" x 9", 10

product

Conservation of Mass in Chemical Reactions

Engineering Design Challenge

In this lab experience, students are challenged to determine and recommend the most energy efficient metal used in cookware. Students determine that despite evidence to the contrary (i.e., the disappearance of solid matter in a chemical reaction), mass is conserved because the matter is changed from one form to another, not destroyed.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Acetic acid, HC2H3O2, 2 M, 750 mL
Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3, 250 g
Balloons, 5”, package of 50, 2
Weighing dishes, 20
Additional Materials Required
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 50 mL, 10
Flask, Erlenmeyer, Borosilicate Glass, 125 mL, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 210 x 0.01-g, 10
Powder Funnel, Polypropylene, 80 mm, 10
Support Stand, 6" x 9", 10
Spatulas, Disposable, Box of 300, 1