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Investigation 6: Chemical Bonding

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Qualitative Analysis and Chemical Bonding

Performance Assessment

In this lab experience, students identify a group of unknown solids based on the systematic testing of their physical and chemical properties. Students come to understand that a material’s properties are linked to the material’s structure and bonding.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Adipic acid, 20 g
Aluminum granules, 20 g
Calcium carbonate, powder, 25 g
Dodecyl alcohol, 20 g
Glycine, 20 g
Graphite, 20 g
Iron oxide, 20 g
Iron powder, 20 g
Potassium nitrate, KNO3, 20 g
Salicylic acid, 20 g
Silicon lumps, 20 g
Sodium carbonate, anhydrous, 20 g
Copper(II) sulfate, pentahydrate, 25g
Dextrose monohydrate, 20 g
Ethyl alcohol, 250 mL
Hexane, 250 mL
Hydrochloric acid solution, 0.1 M, 250 mL
Paraffin wax, 20 g
Sodium hydroxide solution, 0.1 M, 250 mL
Zinc, 20 g
Aluminum dish, 12
Non-Consumable:
Test tubes, 60
Additional Materials Required
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 410 x 0.01-g, 10
Butane Safety Lighter, 10
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 50 mL, 10
Ring Support, with Rod Clamp, 4", 10
Stirring Rods, Glass, 10
Support Stand, 6" x 9", 10
Flinn Digital Thermometer, 10
Tongs, 10
Test tube rack, 10
Test tube holder, 10

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Characteristics of Ionic Bonds

In this lab experience, students carry out an investigation to identify the ionic compounds, from a group of eight compounds, based on the compounds’ physical properties. Students come to understand that a material’s physical properties, such as melting point, are linked to the material’s structure and bonding. Moreover, ionic bonds tend to be strong and so ionic compounds tend to melt at relatively high temperatures.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Calcium carbonate, 25 g
Dextrose, 20 g
Dodecyl alcohol, 20 g
Iron(III) oxide, 30 g
Potassium chloride, 25 g
Salicylic acid, 20 g
Sodium chloride, 25 g
Sucrose, 40 g
Test tubes, glass, 45
Additional Materials Required
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 410 x 0.01-g, 10
Butane Safety Lighter, 10
Evaporating Dishes, Disposable, Aluminum, 20-mL, Pkg. of 100, 1
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 510 x 0.1-g, 10
Flinn Conductivity Meter, 10
Bunsen Burner, Adjustable, Natural Gas, 10
Ring Support, with Rod Clamp, 4", 10
Stirring Rods, Glass, 10
Support Stand, 6" x 9", 10
Test Tube Clamp with Finger Grips, 10
Test Tube Rack, Polypropylene, 10

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Investigate Metallic Compounds

In this lab experience, students carry out an investigation to identify the metals in a group of compounds based on observations related to their physical and chemical properties. Students come to understand that a material’s properties are linked to the material’s structure and bonding.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Aluminum shot, 30 g
Carbon (charcoal), 1 large block
Cupric chloride solution, 0.1 M, 125 mL
Copper, 6" × ½" strips, 2
Hydrochloric acid solution, 1 M, 125 mL
Iodine, 10 g
Magnesium ribbon, 3 feet
Silicon, 20 g
Sulfur, 10 g
Zinc, 5" × ½" strips, 2
Nails, 10
Pipets, 40
Non-Consumable:
Test tubes, 90
Additional Materials Required
Butane Safety Lighter, 10
Flinn Conductivity Meter, 10
Forceps, Polypropylene, 10
Periodic Table, Notebook Size, 10
Spatula/Spoon, Micro, 10
Test Tube Clamp with Finger Grips, 10
Test Tube Rack, Polypropylene, 10

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Evaluate Metals for a Commercial Application

Engineering Design Challenge

In this lab experience, students are asked to determine and recommend the best metal construction material for school buses, taking into account both chemical and physical characteristics as well as cost. Students learn that some metals are more resistant to corrosion than others and that, as a category, metals are lustrous and malleable.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Aluminum foil, roll
Aluminum nitrate solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL
Copper strips, 1.2 × 15 cm, 10
Copper(II) sulfate solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL
Iron strips, 1.2 × 15 cm, 10
Iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate, 8 g
Magnesium nitrate solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL
Magnesium ribbon, 91 cm
Zinc sulfate solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL
Zinc foil, 7 cm × 7 cm, 20 squares
Sandpaper sheet, 23 cm x 28 cm
Pipets, 80
Toothpicks, box of 250
Additional Materials Required
Bottles, Washing, Polyethylene, 125-mL, 10
Forceps, 10
Reaction Plates, 24 Wells, 10
Scissors, Heavy Duty, 10

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Investigate Covalent Bonds

Engineering Design Challenge

In this lab experience, students are asked to determine and recommend the best metal construction material for school buses, taking into account both chemical and physical characteristics as well as cost. Students learn that some metals are more resistant to corrosion than others and that, as a category, metals are lustrous and malleable.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Aluminum foil, roll
Aluminum nitrate solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL
Copper strips, 1.2 × 15 cm, 10
Copper(II) sulfate solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL
Iron strips, 1.2 × 15 cm, 10
Iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate, 8 g
Magnesium nitrate solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL
Magnesium ribbon, 91 cm
Zinc sulfate solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL
Zinc foil, 7 cm × 7 cm, 20 squares
Sandpaper sheet, 23 cm x 28 cm
Pipets, 80
Toothpicks, box of 250
Additional Materials Required
Bottles, Washing, Polyethylene, 125-mL, 10
Forceps, 10
Reaction Plates, 24 Wells, 10
Scissors, Heavy Duty, 10

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Intermolecular Forces

In this lab experience, students study the effects of intermolecular forces on the properties of water and ethyl alcohol and determine the relative strengths of these forces in each compound. Students come to understand that a material’s physical properties are linked to the material’s structure and bonding.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Ethyl alcohol, anhydrous, 500 mL
Pipets, Beral-type, microtip, 40
Non-Consumable:
Capillary tubes, 100 mm, package of 100
Glass slides, package of 72
Microspatulas, 24
Petri dishes, plastic, package of 15
Polyethylene slides, package of 25
Additional Materials Required
Buret, Borosilicate Glass, with Glass Stopcock, 50-mL, 10
Buret Support Stand, 10
Dry Erase Boards, 11" × 16", Pkg. of 12, 10
Dry Erase Markers, Black, Pkg. of 12, 10
Single Buret Clamp, Plastic-Coated Jaw, 10
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 50 mL, 10
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 25 mL, 10
Ruler, Metric, Clear, 30 cm, 10

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Chemical Names and Formulas

In this lab experience, students name and write chemical formulas of ionic and covalent compounds. Students can differentiate between ionic and covalent compounds and understand that ionic compounds must be charge balanced. Students recognize that their are different methods for naming and writing the formulas of ionic and covalent compounds.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Copper(II) chloride solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL
Iron(III) nitrate solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL
Sodium hydroxide solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL
Sodium phosphate solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL
Pipets, 60
Wood splints, package of 100
Non-Consumable:
Ion formula charts, 15
Models of anions sheets, 15
Models of cations sheets, 15
Test tubes, 10 × 75 mm, 100
Additional Materials Required
Copper(II) Chloride Solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL, 10
Iron(III) Nitrate Solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL, 10
Sodium Hydroxide Solution, 0.1 M, 500 mL, 10
Test Tube Rack, Polypropylene, 10
Scissors, 10
Ruler, Metric, Clear, 30 cm, 10
Wax Pencil Set, Heat Resistant, 4