Your Safer Source for Science
All-In-One Science Solution
Your Safer Source for Science
Address P.O. Box 219 Batavia, IL 60510
Phone 800-452-1261
Fax 866-452-1436
Email [email protected]
Pearson Products Bunch view pearson-flinn logo

Investigation 14: Ocean Acidification

product

Calcium Carbonate and Shell Production

Performance Assessment

In this lab experience, students evaluate how different concentrations of hydrochloric acid affect the time it takes to dissolve calcium carbonate then draw conclusions on how this relates to calcifying organisms and ocean acidification. Ocean acidification and its impact on the human population can be difficult for students to understand. It is something that happens on a large scale and over an extended period of time. When measured against the human lifespan, it always seems like a distant problem. But on a geological timeframe, it is occurring quite rapidly. Though this lab, students will come to understand the effect of carbon dioxide on the ocean feedback mechanism. As levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere continue to rise, more of that gas is being absorbed by the ocean. The ocean buffering system is driven more toward the acidic side, lowering the ocean pH. Rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are directly harming the ocean ecosystems through ocean acidification, which is interfering with many organisms’ ability to form shells. Students will see that higher concentrations of acid have a stronger effect on shell material and will be able to understand the effects this has on the ocean’s buffering system and the organisms living within.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Calcium carbonate (marble chips) 70 g
Hydrochloric acid solution, 6 M, 250 mL
Hydrochloric acid solution, 2 M, 200 mL
Petroleum jelly, foilpacs, 10
Non-Consumable:
Syringes, 60 mL, 10
Syringe adapters, 10
Stopper, one-hole, #5, 10
Additional Materials Required
Bottles, Washing, Polyethylene, 250-mL, 10
Flask, Erlenmeyer, Borosilicate Glass, 125 mL, 30
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 120 x 0.001-g, 10
Single Buret Clamp, Plain Jaw, 10
Stopcock Grease, Silicone, 10
Student Timer, 12-pack, 1
Support Stand, Economy Choice, 10

product

The pH of Seawater

In this lab experience, students explore the effect of carbon dioxide dissolution on the pH of a saline solution that resembles seawater and be able to correlate the increased uptake of carbon dioxide and the acidification of surface ocean waters. Students will observe that the dissolution of carbon dioxide gas into a saline solution that resembles seawater causes a decrease in the pH of the solution. This change in pH will be measured directly with a pH meter. Also, the change in pH will cause the change in color of the solution due to the presence of an acid–base indicator.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Acetic acid solution, 2 M, 500 mL
Sodium bicarbonate, 50 g
Sodium carbonate, 10 g
Sodium chloride, 200 g
Phenolphthalein indicator, 1 % solution, 30 mL
Universal indicator solution, 30 mL
Pipets, 40
Weighing dishes, 30
Non-Consumable:
Universal indicator charts, 10
Additional Materials Required
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 250-mL, 10
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 400-mL, 10
DLAB Classic Magnetic Stirrer/Hot Plate, 10
Flask, Filtering, Borosilicate Glass, 250 mL, 10
Flinn Digital Thermometer, 10
Gloves, Terrycloth, General Purpose, 10
Plastic Tubing in 10-Foot Lengths, 5/16" i.d. x 1/16", 10
Rubber Stoppers, 1 lb, Size #6, Black, Solid, 1
Support Stand, 6" x 9", 10
Single Buret Clamp, Plastic-Coated Jaw, 10
Spatulas, Disposable, Box of 300, 1

product

Carbon Dioxide Levels in Water

In this lab experience, students carry out an investigation to record the heating and cooling curves of an organic solid. Students should observe that the hot water fizzes the carbon dioxide source much more vigorously than the cool water sample. Therefore, the increasing temps in the water much more readily release carbon dioxide. Their graphical plot should clearly identify this trend.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Antacid effervescent tablets, package of 40
Sodium chloride, 100 g
Flexible laboratory film, 12” x 2”, 10
Weighing dishes, 20
Additional Materials Required
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 250-mL, 40
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 100 mL, 10
DLAB Classic Magnetic Stirrer/Hot Plate, 10
Flask, Erlenmeyer, Borosilicate Glass, 1000 mL, 10
Flinn Digital Thermometer, 10
Gloves, Terrycloth, General Purpose, 10
Go Direct™ Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensor, 10
Spatulas, Disposable, Box of 300, 1

product

Ocean Currents

In this lab experience, students carry out an investigation to visualize the effect of salinity and temperature on ocean currents. Students will determine that cold fresh water flowing into the ocean can result in/affect ocean currents.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Sodium chloride, 500 g
Red food dye, 15 mL bottle
Blue food dye, 15 mL bottle
Pipets, 20
Non-Consumable:
Shell vial, 30 mL, 20

product

The Fate of Carbonate in Acidifying Oceans

In this lab experience, students explore the chemistry of calcium carbonate formation in saline solutions resembling seawater and investigate how the acidity of the solution and the presence of carbonate or bicarbonate ions affects the formation of calcium carbonate. Students then establish relationships between experimental models, the process of ocean acidification and the formation of calcium carbonate structures by marine organisms. Mixing calcium chloride (CaCl2) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution will cause the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), a white solid. Upon mixing of CaCl2 and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), also in a NaCl solution, an amount of CaCO3 will precipitate, but not as much as in the reaction with Na2CO3. Adding HCl to CaCO3 will cause partial solubilization of the solid. Students will correlate these chemical processes with the effect of ocean acidification on CaCO3 formation by marine organisms.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Calcium chloride, 25 g
Hydrochloric acid solution, 3.0 M, 50 mL
Sodium bicarbonate, 20 g
Sodium carbonate, 20 g
Sodium chloride, 75 g
Pipets, 100
Weighing dishes, 20
Additional Materials Required
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 400 mL, 10
Centrifuge, 1
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 10 mL, 10
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 100 mL, 10
Spatulas, Disposable, Box of 300, 1
Stirring Rods, Glass, 10
Test Tubes without Rims, Borosilicate Glass, 16 x 150 mm, 20.0 mL, 100
Wax Pencil Set, Heat Resistant, 4
Wire Test Tube Rack, No Coating, 22 mm Tubes, 20 Places, 10

product

Design a Model of Ocean Acidification

Engineering Design Challenge

In this lab experience, students are challenged to demonstrate the relationship between carbon cycling and ocean acidification as well as the effects acidification has on coral reef formation. Students determine and demonstrate that there is an inverse relationship between the amount of dissolved CO2 in seawater and pH. Students also determine and demonstrate that the solubility of Ca(OH)2, a main component of coral reefs, increases as the amount of CO2 dissolved in seawater increases.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Bromcresol green indicator solution, 0.04% aqueous, 20 mL dropper bottles, 3
Calcium hydroxide, 500 g
Seltzer water, bottle, 12
Drinking straws, 50
Non-Consumable:
Bromcresol green indicator charts, 10
Additional Materials Required
DLAB Classic Magnetic Stirrer/Hot Plate, 10