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Investigation 5: Chemical Quantities

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Analysis of Basic Copper Carbonate

Performance Assessment

In this lab experience, students determine the empirical formula of an unknown copper carbonate by using a mass-loss approach to determine the percent by mass of CO2 and a colorimetric approach to determine the mass percent of Cu. Students must be proficient with topics, such as the mole, molar mass, molarity, percent composition and empirical formulas. Students determine the experimental mass percents of CO2 and Cu in a sample of copper carbonate of unknown composition. Students compare their experimentally determined mass percents to the theoretical mass percents, calculated from two potential empirical formulas, to determine the true formula of the sample under investigation.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Basic copper carbonate, 50 g
Copper(II) sulfate,pentahydrate, 25 g
Hydrochloric acid solution, 2 M, 300 mL
Sulfuric acid solution, 0.5 M, 120 mL
Pipets, Beral-type, 40
Weigh dishes, 20
Additional Materials Required
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 10 mL, 10
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 25 mL, 10
Flask, Erlenmeyer, Borosilicate Glass, 125 mL, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 210 x 0.01-g, 10
Reaction Plates, 24 Wells, 10
Test Tubes without Rims, Disposable, 13 x 100 mm, Pkg. of 250, 70
Test Tube Rack, Economy Choice, 10

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Describe Small-scale Matter Using the Mole

In this lab experience, students perform a series of exercises to conceptualize just how big a chemical “mole” is and then they carry out an investigation that highlights why the “counting by weighing” method enabled by the mole is so important when working on very small scales. Students come to understand the mole’s utility as a counting number and come to understand just how small the atomic scale is. Also, students are able to apply empirical error analyses to self-developed procedures.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Aluminum foil, roll
Non-Consumable:
Navy beans, dry, 2 lbs
Rice, dry, 2 lbs

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Mole Ratios

In this lab experience, students determine the molar relationships between silver and copper and silver nitrate and copper in the single replacement reaction between copper metal and silver nitrate. They see that atoms (and mass) are conserved in a chemical reaction—not created or destroyed but converted from one form to another—which is reflected balanced chemical equation coefficients. Students come to understand that the products of a chemical reaction can be related to the reactants by virtue of mole ratios because chemical reactions must adhere to the law of conservation of mass.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Acetone,250 mL
Copper wire, 457 cm
Nitric acid, 3 M, 10 mL
Silver nitrate, 25 g
Wooden splints, package of 30
Additional Materials Required
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 50-mL, 10
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 100-mL, 10
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 250-mL, 10
Bottles, Washing, Polyethylene, 250-mL, 10
Flask, Erlenmeyer, Borosilicate Glass, 125 mL, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 210 x 0.01-g, 10
Spatulas, Disposable, Box of 300, 1
Stirring Rods, Glass, 10

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Determine an Empirical Formula

In this lab experience, students carry out an investigation to determine the empirical formula of an unknown, binary compound. Students come to understand that the formula of a compound that can be decomposed into smaller elements by heating, is subject to empirical formula determination by mass loss methods. They understand this in the context of the law of conservation of mass. Students gain familiarity with calculations that involve the mole and mass percents.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Barium chloride dihydrate, 75 g
Labels, 20
Non-Consumable:
Vials with snap-on caps, 10
Additional Materials Required
Bunsen Burner, Adjustable, Natural Gas, 10
Crucible, Porcelain, High Form, with Cover, Flinn, 15-mL, 10
Crucible Tongs, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 120 x 0.001-g, 10
Support Stand, Economy Choice, 10
Wire Gauze Squares, with Ceramic Centers, 4″ × 4″, 10
Triangle, Pipe Stem, ", 10

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An Empirical Formula Challenge

Engineering Design Challenge

In this lab experience, students are challeneged to determine the amount of copper present within a sample. Students use their knowledge of the law of conservation of mass and chemical quantities to determine the percent by mass of copper in a sample of copper chloride hydrate.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Aluminum wire, 12 cm
Copper(II) Chloride, 2 g
Weighing dishes, 20
Additional Materials Required
Aspirator, Water, Metal (Chapman Type), 10
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 250-mL, 10
Büchner Funnel, Porcelain, Coors, 63 mm, 10
Bunsen Burner, Adjustable, Natural Gas, 10
Crucible, Porcelain, High Form, with Cover, Flinn, 15-mL, 10
Filter Paper, Qualitative, 7.0 cm, 10
Flask, Filtering, Borosilicate Glass, 500 mL, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 210 x 0.01-g, 10
Piezoelectric Igniter, 10

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Preparation of Solutions

In this lab experience, students carry out an investigation to determine how a mole can be used to describe solution concentrations. Students come to understand that as the amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of solvent increases, solution concentration as described by the quantity, molarity, also increases. Students learn that in colorful solutions it is easy to differentiate based on concentration. Students learn about the mole-based calculation needed to prepare solutions, and also about the appropriate procedures and glassware for preparing solutions with accurate concentrations.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Copper(II) sulfate, 600 g
Pipets, 40
Weighing dishes, 20
Additional Materials Required
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 250-mL, 10
Bottles, Washing, Polyethylene, 250-mL, 10
Flask, Volumetric, Borosilicate Glass, 100 mL, 20
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 210 x 0.01-g, 10
Funnel, Utility, Polyethylene, 2¾", 10
Spatulas, Disposable, Box of 300, 1
Wax Pencil Set, Heat Resistant, 4