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360Science™: The Thermodynamics of Hand Warmers
Concepts: Breaking ionic bonds, enthalpy change, heat of dissolution, exothermic versus endothermic
Outcomes: Based on temperature measurement results, students will determine that dissolution of NaOH and CaCl2 releases heat energy, whereas dissolution of NaCl and NH4Cl absorbs heat from the surroundings. Then, they will explain the results, based on differences in the strength of ionic bonds in the solid compounds, intermolecular water forces, and the interactions between ions and water molecules in solution. Finally, students will propose the design of hand warmers using a solution of CaCl2 or NaOH in water and instant cold packs using aqueous NH4Cl.
Associated Phenomena: Why does exercise heat us up?
Our 1-year option provides access to all digital content for one year plus lab supplies for a single class of 30 students. Our 3-year option extends access to digital content to three years, with a 30% discount on refill supply kits years 2 and 3.
What is Flinn 360Science™?
We’re introducing a whole new way to teach experiential science! We’ve taken a hard look at science study from all perspectives and, thanks to the feedback of thousands of teachers nationwide, we’ve created a way to make it easier to provide personalized instruction while delivering the kind of lab experiences your students truly need.
Our new and comprehensive learning solutions are designed to bring science to life by giving you all the tools you need to incorporate more (and effective) hands-on learning in your classroom or lab. 360Science allows you to provide your students with the support they need to make real-world connections to key scientific principles and help make those abstract concepts concrete.
Every 360Science lab solves the most common challenges educators face in bringing more hands-on science to their students—from not having enough time to matching the right level of challenge for students’ abilities to providing appropriate background content, safety techniques, assessments and more.
Enable student-driven, blended learning through a unique combination of leveled lab instructions supporting prescriptive, guided- and open-inquiry lab exercises (see PDF resource for specific details) with robust digital content, such as videos and carefully curated Open Educational Resources (OER)—along with virtual reality and simulation exercises. From editable, digital instructions to assessments and alignment with Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), we have everything you need to improve mastery, remove the intimidation factor and foster your students’ natural curiosity.
HS-PS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.
HS-PS1-4. Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.