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360Science™: Toxicity of Road Deicers

By: The Flinn Scientific Staff

360Science™ blends the best of student-engaging digital content with easily adaptable hands-on labs to offer your students a uniquely comprehensive learning experience.

In this lab experience, students carry out an investigation to determine the effect of road deicers on the germination and growth of lettuce seeds. Specifically, they prepare solutions containing different concentrations of a salt used as a road deicer and evaluate how the concentration of salt affects the sprouting and growth of lettuce seeds. Based on their results, they argue whether the salt in these solutions is a green choice for use as a deicer. Editable, differentiated instructions range from a time-sensitive prescriptive lab to full open inquiry, and robust online videos and content—including a virtual reality (VR) simulation—help students prepare for and better understand the labs they’re conducting.

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360Science™: Toxicity of Road Deicers
Concepts:
Green chemistry, ecotoxicity, aqueous solution chemistry
Outcomes: The percent germination of lettuce seeds will be above 90 percent in all salt solutions of concentration equal or lower than 1 percent, against the control in pure water. Little or no germination and growth of lettuce seeds will be observed in solutions containing 10 percent of salt. Growth will be most hampered in solutions containing sodium chloride, calcium chloride, or magnesium chloride at concentrations equal or higher than 1 percent. On the other hand, lettuce seeds immersed in salt solutions of concentration below 1 percent will grow to almost the same size as in pure water.
Associated Phenomena: Green Processes

Our 1-year option provides access to all digital content for one year plus lab supplies for a single class of 30 students. Our 3-year option extends access to digital content to three years, with a 30% discount on refill supply kits years 2 and 3.

What is Flinn 360Science™?
We’re introducing a whole new way to teach experiential science! We’ve taken a hard look at science study from all perspectives and, thanks to the feedback of thousands of teachers nationwide, we’ve created a way to make it easier to provide personalized instruction while delivering the kind of lab experiences your students truly need.

Our new and comprehensive learning solutions are designed to bring science to life by giving you all the tools you need to incorporate more (and effective) hands-on learning in your classroom or lab. 360Science allows you to provide your students with the support they need to make real-world connections to key scientific principles and help make those abstract concepts concrete.

Every 360Science lab solves the most common challenges educators face in bringing more hands-on science to their students—from not having enough time to matching the right level of challenge for students’ abilities to providing appropriate background content, safety techniques, assessments and more.

Enable student-driven, blended learning through a unique combination of leveled lab instructions supporting prescriptive, guided- and open-inquiry lab exercises (see PDF resource for specific details) with robust digital content, such as videos and carefully curated Open Educational Resources (OER)—along with virtual reality and simulation exercises. From editable, digital instructions to assessments and alignment with Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), we have everything you need to improve mastery, remove the intimidation factor and foster your students’ natural curiosity.


Correlation to Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

Science & Engineering Practices

Developing and using models
Planning and carrying out investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using mathematics and computational thinking

Disciplinary Core Ideas

HS-PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter
HS-PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect
Patterns
Energy and Matter in Systems
Structure and Function

Performance Expectations

HS-ESS3-4. Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.