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In 1962, James Watson (1928–), Francis Crick (1916–2004), and Maurice Wilkins (1916–2004) received the Nobel Prize for their determination of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In the years since the structure of DNA was first unraveled, it has become the most significant biological topic of the century. Understanding the structure of DNA helps to explain many life processes and genetic differences between organisms. The process of DNA extraction is of primary importance in many fields of biotechnology. It is critical for genetic research, DNA fingerprinting and creating recombinant organisms to produce beneficial products in the field of medicine.