Publication No. 10201
ABO Blood Typing
Student Laboratory Kit
Materials Included In Kit
Anti-a blood sera, 1 bottle
Additional Materials Required
Autoclave, pressure cooker or bleach solution
It is important to review the potential dangers of mixing body fluids (e.g., disease, AIDS) prior to doing this lab. Student health records should be checked to make sure no students have AIDS, hepatitis, etc. Any student with a health problem should not be allowed to type their blood. Written parental permission should be secured for all participating students. This exercise cannot be mandatory and some teachers elect to do it as a demonstration using themselves as the blood source. It would be wise to demonstrate the entire procedure prior to doing the lab, emphasizing the sterile procedures as well as the disposal procedures.
It is extremely important that sterile procedures be followed during the entire blood typing procedure and that there is strict adherence to mature laboratory behavior. Blood typing materials must not be shared by two individuals! Each person needs to use his or her own sterile swabs, sterile lancets, blood typing card and mixing sticks. Provide clearly marked containers for student disposal of all used materials. A sharps container must be used for used lancets. Additional biohazard bags should be used for plastic toothpick stirrers and used cotton swabs. As indicated in the Prelab Preparation section, no one with any blood disease or other illness should be allowed to type his or her blood and parental permission and involvement should be encouraged.
All materials used in the lab should be sterilized before disposal. An autoclave or pressure cooker works best for sterilization. All used items should be steam sterilized (following autoclave or pressure cooker directions) in biohazard bags. If these items are not available, all items can be soaked for 24 hours in a 15% bleach solution and then disposed of in biohazard bags. If a local hospital or blood bank is available, they are likely to assist you in disposal of the materials.
Correlation to Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)†
Science & Engineering PracticesPlanning and carrying out investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Engaging in argument from evidence
Obtaining, evaluation, and communicating information
Disciplinary Core IdeasMS-PS1.B: Chemical Reactions
MS-LS1.A: Structure and Function
HS-LS1.A: Structure and Function
HS-PS1.B: Chemical Reactions
Crosscutting ConceptsStructure and function
Cause and effect
Systems and system models
MS-PS1-2. Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.
Student results are usually very straightforward and clumping is obvious. Be sure students do not press on the paper card too hard when mixing. The fibers from the paper of their blood typing card could give a false looking clumping result. Even though the ABO blood typing procedure is reasonably accurate, emphasize that these test results are not absolute. Be especially sensitive if a blood type is secured that seems to be in conflict with genetic predictions based upon parental blood types. Be sensitive to possible social complications that can arise from blood typing discussions.
ABO Blood Typing
A blood transfusion with blood of a mismatched blood type usually has serious consequences for the recipient of the blood. Today, complete blood analysis is done with sophisticated, costly equipment before transfusions are done. The basic principles of blood typing will be illustrated in this activity using ABO blood typing sera.
Using the same illustration scheme, a transfusion of type B blood into an individual with type A blood might be illustrated as follows:
Similarly, a person with type B blood must not be given a transfusion with type A blood.
(for each individual)
Caution: It is extremely important that materials are not shared or interchanged during any of the steps in the blood typing procedures.
Caution: Discard the lancet after the finger has been lanced in a biohazard waste container. A LANCET SHOULD NEVER BE REUSED. NEVER USE ANOTHER PERSON’S LANCET!