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A buffer protects against rapid changes in pH when acids or bases are added. Every living cell contains natural buffer systems to maintain the constant pH needed for proper cell function. Consumer products are also often buffered to safeguard their activity. With the Buffers Keep the Balance: Biological Buffers—ChemTopic™ Lab Activity, prepare a model biological carbonic acid–bicarbonate buffer, then examine the effects of added acid and base on the pH and its buffer capacity. Then prepare two different phosphate buffers that reflect the physiological role of buffers within cells and measure the pH of the buffers and their pH range.