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The physiological role of buffers within cells and in consumer products highlights the ability of buffers to resist changes in pH. Buffers provide an essential acid−base balancing act—in foods and drugs, consumer products, lakes and streams, and even living cells. All biological cells depend on the properties of buffers, as does the essential function of the respiratory system, breathing, which must be regulated within a very narrow pH range. What are buffers made of and how do they work?