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Investigation 11: Thermochemistry

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Enthalpy of a Neutralization Reaction

Performance Assessment

In this lab experience, students will determine the enthalpy of a neutralization reaction involving hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. NaOH is approximately –63 kJ/mol. In addition, students will determine the enthalpy of neutralization of a HCl solution with solid NaOH. They will find out that the latter process is also exothermic, with an enthalpy more negative than –63 kJ/mol, because it includes the enthalpy of dissolution of solid NaOH in water.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Hydrochloric acid solution, 1.0 M, 1600 mL
Sodium hydroxide solution, 1.0 M, 800 mL
Sodium hydroxide flakes, 100 g
Polystyrene cups, package of 30
Weigh dishes, 20
Additional Materials Required
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 400-mL, 10
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 50 mL, 20
Flinn Digital Thermometer, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 410 x 0.01-g, 10
Spatulas, Disposable, Box of 300, 1

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The Thermodynamics of Hand Warmers

In this lab experience, students investigate the energy changes that accompany the dissolution of common laboratory salts in water and apply the results to design a hand warmer that is reliable, safe and inexpensive. Based on temperature measurement results, students will determine that dissolution of NaOH and CaCl2 releases heat energy, whereas dissolution of NaCl and NH4Cl absorbs heat from the surroundings. Then they will explain the results, based on differences in the strength of ionic bonds in the solid compounds, intermolecular water forces, and the interactions between ions and water molecules in solution. Finally, students will propose the design of hand warmers using a solution of CaCl2 or NaOH in water and instant cold packs using aqueous NH4Cl.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Ammonium chloride, 350 g
Calcium chloride, 300 g
Sodium chloride, 300 g
Sodium hydroxide, 500 g
Polystyrene cups, 20
Weighing dishes, 50
Additional Materials Required
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 250-mL, 10
DLAB Classic Magnetic Stirrer/Hot Plate, 10
Flinn Digital Thermometer, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 410 x 0.01-g, 10
Gloves, Terrycloth, General Purpose, 10
Ring Support, with Rod Clamp, 4", 10
Support Stand, 6" x 9", 10
Student Timer, 12-pack, 1
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 100 mL, 10

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Flameless Heating Systems

Engineering Design Challenge

In this lab experience, students predict the outcome of chemical reactions and type then carry out the same chemical reactions and make necessary corrections to the predicted equations and types. Editable, differentiated instructions range from a time-sensitive prescriptive lab to full open inquiry, and robust online videos and content help students prepare for and better understand the labs they’re conducting.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Calcium oxide, CaO, 500 g
Beral pipets, package of 20
Weighing dishes, 20
Non-Consumable:
Test tubes, 13 mm × 100 mm, 10

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Hess's Law and the Combustion of a Metal

In this lab experience, students carry out an investigation to determine how much heat energy is released during the combustion of magnesium in air. They apply Hess’s Law as an indirect method to determine the heat of combustion of magnesium from the heat of reaction of less hazardous reactions that also involve this metal. The enthalpy of formation of MgO results from combining the enthalpies of reaction between Mg and HCl and between MgO and HCl. The enthalpy of formation of MgO has a negative sign, indicating that this is an exothermic reaction.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Hydrochloric acid, 1 M, 800 mL
Magnesium ribbon, 3 feet
Magnesium oxide, 10 g
Weighing dishes, 20
Non-Consumable:
Calorimeters, small scale, 10
Additional Materials Required
Bottles, Washing, Polyethylene, 250-mL, 10
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 50 mL, 10
Flexible Rulers with English/Metric, Clear, 10
Flinn Digital Thermometer, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 410 x 0.01-g, 10
Forceps, 10
Scissors, 10
Spatulas, Disposable, Box of 300, 1
Stirring Rods, Glass, 10

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The Heat of Melting Ice

In this lab experience, students investigate the energy changes that accompany the dissolution of common laboratory salts in water and apply the results to design a hand warmer that is reliable, safe and inexpensive. After completing this investigation students will have a much better understanding of how the melting of ice located in the sea and melting of the ice located on land influence sea level differently. They will also gain a global perspective as they research how coastal cities are addressing the challenges associated with rising sea levels.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Sodium chloride, 400 g
Sodium chloride solution, 1.0 M, 150 mL
Polystyrene cups, package of 30
Weighing dishes, 20
Non-Consumable:
Test tubes, 16 mm × 100 mm, 20
Additional Materials Required
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 600-mL, 10
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 100 mL, 10
Flask, Erlenmeyer, Borosilicate Glass, 250 mL, 10
Flinn Digital Thermometer, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 410 x 0.01-g, 10
Ring Support, with Rod Clamp, 3", 10
Support Stand, 6" x 9", 10
Test Tube Clamp with Finger Grips, 10
Student Timer, 12-pack, 1