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Investigation 4: Physical Properties of Materials

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Road Deicers

Performance Assessment

In this lab experience, students carry out an investigation examining road deicers. They combine their data with cost information to make a recommendation about which material should be used. Students should come to understand that the more species a compound dissociates into, the greater the effect it has on the melting point. Calcium chloride is found to be the most effective road deicer. However, at twice the price of sodium chloride students might not consider it to be cost effective.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Calcium chloride, CaCl2, 120 g
Silicon dioxide, SiO2, 200 g
Sodium chloride, NaCl, 120 g
Additional Materials Required
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 50-mL, 40
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 600-mL, 10
Flinn Digital Thermometer, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 510 x 0.1-g, 10
Student Timer, 12-pack, 1

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Correlate Material Properties and Bond Type

In this lab experience, students perform an investigation to determine if bulk properties can be correlated to types of bonds within a substance. Students find that bonds can be broadly defined as ionic, metallic, covalent and covalent network. They also find that there are certain observable properties usually associated with each type of bonding.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Aluminum, granular, 10 g
Ethanol, 95%, 50 mL
Hexane, 100 mL
Methanol, 25 mL
Silicon dioxide,5 g
Sodium chloride, 5 g
Stearic acid, 5 g
Sucrose, 5 g
Non-Consumable:
Test tubes, small, 55
Additional Materials Required
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 510 x 0.1-g, 10
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 150-mL, 10
Boiling Stones, 250 g, 1
Bunsen Burner, Adjustable, Natural Gas, 10
Flinn Conductivity Meter, 10
DLAB Classic Magnetic Stirrer/Hot Plate, 10
Beral Pipets, Graduated, Pkg. of 500, 1
Stirring Rods, Glass, 10
Weighing Dishes, Disposable, 1-5/8" x 1-5/8" x 5/16", Pkg. of 500, 1
Test tube rack, 10
Test tube holder (clamp), 10
Spatulas, Disposable, Box of 300, 1
Bottles, Washing, Polyethylene, 250-mL, 10

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Measure the Energy of a Phase Change

In this lab experience, students carry out an investigation to record the heating and cooling curves of an organic solid. Students will conclude that evaporation and melting are endothermic processes and that freezing is an exothermic process.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Cetyl alcohol, 30 g
Ethanol, 120 mL
Lauric acid, 30 g
Stearic acid, 30 g
Polystyrene foam cups, package of 30
Rubber bands, orthodontic, package of 100
Weighing dishes, 10
Non-Consumable:
Test tube, 20 mm x 150 mm, 10
Additional Materials Required
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 50 mL, 10
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 250 mL, 10
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 400 mL, 10
DLAB Classic Magnetic Stirrer/Hot Plate, 10
Flinn Digital Thermometer, 10
Support Stand, 6" x 9", 10
Single Buret Clamp, Plastic-Coated Jaw, 10
Test Tube Rack, Polypropylene, 10
Thermometer clamp, 10

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Melt Ionic and Covalent Compounds

In this lab experience, students carry out an investigation to determine the melting points of different compounds and determine that the melting point is related to the degree of ionic character. Students will conclude that the more ionic in character a material is, the higher its melting point will be.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Acetic acid, glacial, 70 mL
Ammonium acetate, 100 g
Sodium acetate, anhydrous, 60 g
Sodium chloride, 100 g
Weighing dishes, 30
Additional Materials Required
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 250 mL, 10
Bunsen Burner, Natural Gas, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 210 x 0.01-g, 10
Flinn Digital Thermometer, 10
Heavy-Walled Test Tubes, 16 x 125 mm, 30
Test Tube Rack, Economy Choice, 10
Thermocouple (requires Vernier interface, such as TC1549 Go! Link), 10

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Abrasive Compounds

Engineering Design Challenge

In this lab experience, students are challenged to design a compound that removes the copper layer from the surface of a penny, leaving behind a highly polished zinc surface. Students will find that there is a trade-off between removal rate and the quality of the surface finish.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Aluminium oxide, 100 g
Sodium chloride, 50 g
Glucose (Dextrose), 50 g
Oil, corn, 100 mL
Vinegar, 110 mL
Sandpaper, sheets, 9” x 11”, 2
Wax, blocks, 4
Non-Consumable:
Microfiber cloths, 2

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Model Metals, Ceramics and Polymers

In this lab experience, students observe that metals can conduct electricity, that ceramics are strong but rigid and that adding branches and crosslinks to polymers results in a stronger, more rigid, plastic. Students will link the bulk properties of materials to the observations that they made when examining their atomic and molecular scale models.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Bamboo skewers, package of 100
Chenille wires, assorted colors, 405
Expanded polystyrene balls, 1”, 150
Wrapping paper, 24”, 15 assorted pieces
Additional Materials Required
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 50-mL, 10
Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 50 mL, 10
Ruler, Metric, Clear, 30 cm, 10
Scissors, 10

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Building a Better Bike

Engineering Design Challenge

In this lab experience, students are challenged to design a model bicycle frame that can stand up to the rigors of daily use. Different materials have different weight to strength ratios, which can make them better suited to specific applications.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Aluminum strips, 30
Aluminum wire, 16 gauge, 50 feet
Bamboo skewers, package of 100
Cardstock, 40 sheets
Chenille wire, 12”, 135
Clay, ¼ lb, 2
Duct tape, roll

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Investigate Surface Tension

In this lab experience, students float a paper clip on the surface of water and then use soap to change the surface tension, finally counting how many drops of water they can balance on a penny’s face. Students learn that the intermolecular interactions between water molecules give rise to surface tension and that disrupting these interactions by the introduction of a surfactant changes the surface tension.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Construction paper, black, half sheets, package of 10, 2
Cotton swabs, package of 75
Paraffin wax, 4 oz blocks, 4
Soap solution, 70 mL
Pipets, 20
Non-Consumable:
Paper clips, box of 100
Petri dishes, 30
Additional Materials Required
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 600-mL, 10
Digital Microscope, Handheld, 10
Scissors, 10
Protractor, 180 degrees, 10

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Aqueous Solutions

In this lab experience, students carry out an investigation to observe the color of copper(II) sulfate at different concentrations. They then repeat the investigation using glucose. Students learn that there is a relationship between the amount of solute dissolved in a solution and its properties. They also observe that there are limits to how much material can be dissolved.

Materials Included in Kit

Consumable:
Copper(II) sulfate, 300 g
Dextrose (glucose), anhydrous, 300 g
Weighing dishes, 10
Additional Materials Required
Beakers, Borosilicate Glass, 600-mL, 10
DLAB Classic Magnetic Stirrer/Hot Plate, 10
Flinn Conductivity Meter, 10
Flinn Scientific Electronic Balance, 300 x 0.1-g, 10
Spatulas, Disposable, Box of 300, 1
Stirring Rods, Glass, 10